Citation – APA Sessions

The American Psychological Association (APA) Style is normally used to format and cite research papers. The Centre for Nursing Studies offers APA sessions for students. Other supports and resources are offered by the Learning Resource Centre.

APA sessions

Help for APA style is available by appointment or via group sessions. To schedule an individual appointment, please contact the Learning Resource Centre or drop by the computer lab.

Depending on student need, additional sessions may be offered periodically each semester. The Learning Resource Centre will email students with dates and times. These sessions are drop-in, no appointment needed.


As a personal interview is not published or “findable,” it should not be included in an APA reference list. Instead, a personal interview should be referenced as a parenthetical citation. For example: (J. Smith, personal communication, May 17, 2008).

Tips for effective paraphrasing:

  • The statement must be in your own words.
  • If you use any phrases that are in the original quote, place them in quotation marks.
  • Add a citation, even if a paraphrase is in your own words, it is still someone else’s idea.

For more information, please Student Resources.

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Last updated: 2023-07-19